Sunday, April 28, 2013
The Evolution of Virtue 7
Here I reply to a second question posed in my recent exchanges with Miranda: if virtuous deeds are what virtuous persons do and virtuous persons are those who do virtuous deeds (as I have argued) how do we know discover virtue is? Surely we need to know that in advance in order to recognize the one and the other.
In chapter two of Moral Origins, Christopher Boehm considers the nature and evolution of psychopathy. The psychopath is a person who is incapable of “internalizing” the moral rules by which his social fellows live. He doesn’t feel the least bit inclined to follow those rules and indeed may be unable to do so. Nor does he feel at all distressed or regretful about the damage he does to his victims.
Boehm considers first a number of cases where psychopathy was the result of an injury to the prefrontal cortex. This is apparently the spot in the brain where our moral circuitry resides. Whereas most of us are kept reasonable responsible and reliable by our moral emotions, these “morally damaged minds” could not provide such a service.
The result is a life that is an utter mess. Unable to evaluate and control their own impulses, they became friendless and wretched. The most famous case, Phineas Gage, ended up as a sideshow freak.
Here, I submit, both the beauty and utility of moral virtue is glaringly apparent. Without it, one cannot be a good friend and partner, a good husband or father, or even provide well for oneself. One cannot lead a decent human life. All one needs to know to begin to recognize virtuous deeds and virtuous persons is the difference between sickness and health. Given that, the difference between moral mediocrity and moral excellence (which is what virtue means) is not problematic.
Boehm turns next to the “born psychopath.” He notes an alarming estimate that such individuals may be as common as one is every seven hundred. That suggests that some selection pressure is keeping their amoral traits in the gene pool. What might that mean?
Consider the hawks in the previous post on the prisoner’s dilemma. Unlike the cases mentioned above, born psychopaths are not always behaviorally dysfunctional. They are often highly intelligent and can be very good at pretending to have moral passions that they do not genuinely feel. They are nature’s conmen and predators. I recall an episode of This American Life were it was suggested that they make very good CEO’s of competitive companies.
Whether the advantages of intelligence and a drive to dominion outweigh the utterly alone and loveless existence that is the fate of such persons, I will not address here. I would only note that I have trouble imagining that any morally healthy person would choose to be like that. What I will submit is that, apart from a possible economic niche that might actually be useful to the rest of us, the born psychopaths are enemies of nearly all of us.
Such creatures frequently become monsters. They lie, steal, cheat, and kill without remorse. Sometimes they become serial killers and there is no telling how many of them are out there. They probably flourish in war and especially in civil war. I don’t doubt but that they make excellent tyrants.
For those of us who are not psychopaths, who have the normal pallet of moral emotions, who want to love and have friends and families and fellow citizens, the psychopath is an enemy. If such a being is preserved by natural selection, then that is one of the burdens of our species. It is no more difficult to see that he is bad than it is to see the difference between health and sickness. Likewise, it is easy enough to see the virtues of ordinary morality and the utter beauty of moral virtuosity.
Ps. Tonight I reread Aristotle’s discussion of tyranny in the Politics, Book E, sections 10 & 11. Aristotle considers how tyrannies are maintained and proposes two ways that are almost the opposite of one another. The first is familiar to anyone who knows much about modern totalitarianism. Keep the population weak, divided, and fearful. Cut down any individual who shows signs of courage and independence. Deploy your secret police to find out what your subjects are doing and thinking and to make it impossible for them to trust one another.
The second way is to pretend to be a virtuous monarch. Give to each subject as much security as you can safely allow. Avoid lavish displays and instead cultivate a reputation for fiscal responsibility. Present yourself as the protector of the people, responsible for their security and prosperity. Of course this is mere pretense. Its purpose is to keep you in power, not to promote the common welfare; otherwise, you might really become a virtuous monarch and that wouldn’t be preserving tyranny, would it?
It’s not at all clear to me that the two modes of preserving tyranny are really at odds. The most vicious tyrants usually try to do both in so far as they can manage. Aristotle’s point is that tyranny is ugly even when it pretends to be beautiful. Whatever the advantages of tyranny to the tyrant, it is clearly bad for almost all human beings under the tyrant’s power. I submit that, in light of this comparison, virtuous persons, virtuous actions, and virtuous government are all easy to discern.
Pps. Salman Rushdie has a fine piece on moral courage at the New York Times.